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Operationalize means to put into operation. Operational definitions are also used to define system states in terms of a specific, publicly accessible process of preparation or validation testing, which is repeatable at will. For example, 100 degrees Celsius may be crudely defined by describing the process of heating water at sea level until it is observed to boil. An item like a brick, or even a photograph of a brick, may be defined in terms of how it can be made. Likewise, iron may be defined in terms of the results of testing or measuring it in particular ways.

Vandervert (1980/1988) described in scientific detail a simple, everyday illustration of an operational definition in terms of making a cake (i.e., its recipe is an operational definition used in a specialized laboratory known as the household kitchen). [4] Similarly, the saying, if it walks like a duck and quacks like a duck, it must be some kind of duck , may be regarded as involving a sort of measurement process or set of tests (see duck test ).

Despite the controversial philosophical origins of the concept, particularly its close association with logical positivism , operational definitions have undisputed practical applications. This is especially so in the social and medical sciences, where operational definitions of key terms are used to preserve the unambiguous empirical testability of hypothesis and theory. Operational definitions are also important in the physical sciences .

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry on scientific realism, written by Richard Boyd , indicates that the modern concept owes its origin in part to Percy Williams Bridgman , who felt that the expression of scientific concepts was often abstract and unclear. Inspired by Ernst Mach , in 1914 Bridgman attempted to redefine unobservable entities concretely in terms of the physical and mental operations used to measure them. [5] Accordingly, the definition of each unobservable entity was uniquely identified with the instrumentation used to define it. From the beginning objections were raised to this approach, in large part around the inflexibility. As Boyd notes, "In actual, and apparently reliable, scientific practice, changes in the instrumentation associated with theoretical terms are routine, and apparently crucial to the progress of science. According to a 'pure' operationalist conception, these sorts of modifications would not be methodologically acceptable, since each definition must be considered to identify a unique 'object' (or class of objects)." [5] However, this rejection of operationalism as a general project destined ultimately to define all experiential phenomena uniquely did not mean that operational definitions ceased to have any practical use or that they could not be applied in particular cases. [ Pumps amp; High Heels for Women On Sale Black Suede leather 2017 35 55 Sophia Webster Suede leather ujdbC

New in Django 1.11.

Removes the index named name from the model with model_name .

Allows running of arbitrary SQL on the database - useful for more advanced features of database backends that Django doesn’t support directly, like partial indexes.

sql , and reverse_sql if provided, should be strings of SQL to run on the database. On most database backends (all but PostgreSQL), Django will split the SQL into individual statements prior to executing them. This requires installing the sqlparse Python library.

You can also pass a list of strings or 2-tuples. The latter is used for passing queries and parameters in the same way as cursor.execute() . These three operations are equivalent:

If you want to include literal percent signs in the query, you have to double them if you are passing parameters.

The reverse_sql queries are executed when the migration is unapplied, so you can reverse the changes done in the forwards queries:

The state_operations argument is so you can supply operations that are equivalent to the SQL in terms of project state; for example, if you are manually creating a column, you should pass in a list containing an AddField operation here so that the autodetector still has an up-to-date state of the model (otherwise, when you next run makemigrations , it won’t see any operation that adds that field and so will try to run it again). For example:

The optional hints argument will be passed as **hints to the allow_migrate() method of database routers to assist them in making routing decisions. See Hints for more details on database hints.

The optional elidable argument determines whether or not the operation will be removed (elided) when squashing migrations .

Pass the RunSQL.noop attribute to sql or reverse_sql when you want the operation not to do anything in the given direction. This is especially useful in making the operation reversible.

Runs custom Python code in a historical context. code (and reverse_code if supplied) should be callable objects that accept two arguments; the first is an instance of django.apps.registry.Apps containing historical models that match the operation’s place in the project history, and the second is an instance of SchemaEditor .

Pessimistic representatives of negative utilitarianism can be found in the environment of Buddhism . [67]

Motive utilitarianism was first proposed by Robert Merrihew Adams in 1976. [68] Whereas act utilitarianism requires us to choose our actions by calculating which action will maximize utility and rule utilitarianism requires us to implement rules that will, on the whole, maximize utility, motive utilitarianism "has the utility calculus being used to select motives and dispositions according to their general felicific effects, and those motives and dispositions then dictate our choices of actions." [69]

The arguments for moving to some form of motive utilitarianism at the personal level can be seen as mirroring the arguments for moving to some form of rule utilitarianism at the social level. [70] Adams refers to Sidgwick's observation that "Happiness (general as well as individual) is likely to be better attained if the extent to which we set ourselves consciously to aim at it be carefully restricted." [71] Trying to apply the utility calculation on each and every occasion is likely to lead to a sub-optimal outcome. Applying carefully selected rules at the social level and encouraging appropriate motives at the personal level is, so it is argued, likely to lead to a better overall outcome even if on some individual occasions it leads to the wrong action when assessed according to act utilitarian standards. [72]

Adams concludes that "right action, by act-utilitarian standards, and right motivation, by motive-utilitarian standards, are incompatible in some cases." [73] The necessity of this conclusion is rejected by Fred Feldman who argues that "the conflict in question results from an inadequate formulation of the utilitarian doctrines; motives play no essential role in it…(and that)… Precisely the same sort of conflict arises even when MU is left out of consideration and AU is applied by itself." [74] Instead, Feldman proposes a variant of act utilitarianism that results in there being no conflict between it and motive utilitarianism.

Because utilitarianism is not a single theory but a cluster of related theories that have been developed over two hundred years, criticisms can be made for different reasons and have different targets.

The main objection to utilitarianism is the inability to quantify, compare, or measure happiness or well-being. Ray Briggs writes in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy : [75]